Both are using substances even though it causes you harm.
Substance Abuse is LESS severe than dependence.
Withdrawal goes with Dependence.
Most problematic withdrawal are alcohol and heroin.
Common signs of withdrawal are nausea, restlessness, insomnia, depression, sweating, shaking, and anxiety
11 Classes of substance-related disorders:
1. Polysubstance Dependence- Is not exclusively one specific type of use. Is 3 or more types taken together.
2. Alcohol- can lead to DTs or delirium tremors -can be fatal if not monitored closely -Other common symptoms include intense perceptual disturbance such as visions of insects, snakes, or rats.
3. Opiods (morphine, heroin, condone, Oxycodone, hydrocodone) -most addicts have comorbid SMI -produces euphoria when using -withdrawal symptoms are
DTs- Delirium Tremens usually includes extremely intense feelings of "impending doom". Can occur in alcohol & sedative hypnotics such as benzos and barbituates.
The main symptoms of Delirium Tremens are confusion, diarrhea, insomnia, nightmares, disorientation and agitation and other signs of severe autonomic instability (fever, tachycardia, hypertension.
-can be fatal if not monitored closely -Other common symptoms include intense perceptual disturbance such as visions of insects, snakes, or rats.
Physical warning signs of drug abuse
- Bloodshot eyes, pupils larger or smaller than usual.
- Changes in appetite or sleep patterns. Sudden weight loss or weight gain.
- Deterioration of physical appearance, personal grooming habits.
- Unusual smells on breath, body, or clothing.
- Tremors, slurred speech, or impaired coordination.
Behavioral signs of drug abuse
- Drop in attendance and performance at work or school.
- Unexplained need for money or financial problems. May borrow or steal to get it.
- Engaging in secretive or suspicious behaviors.
- Sudden change in friends, favorite hangouts, and hobbies.
- Frequently getting into trouble (fights, accidents, illegal activities).
Psychological warning signs of drug abuse
- Unexplained change in personality or attitude.
- Sudden mood swings, irritability, or angry outbursts.
- Periods of unusual hyperactivity, agitation, or giddiness.
- Lack of motivation; appears lethargic or “spaced out.”
- Appears fearful, anxious, or paranoid, with no reason.
Warning Signs of Commonly Abused Drugs
- Marijuana: Glassy, red eyes; loud talking, inappropriate laughter followed by sleepiness; loss of interest, motivation; weight gain or loss.
- Depressants (including Xanax, Valium, GHB): Contracted pupils; drunk-like; difficulty concentrating; clumsiness; poor judgment; slurred speech; sleepiness.
- Stimulants (including amphetamines, cocaine, crystal meth): Dilated pupils; hyperactivity; euphoria; irritability; anxiety; excessive talking followed by depression or excessive sleeping at odd times; may go long periods of time without eating or sleeping; weight loss; dry mouth and nose.
- Inhalants (glues, aerosols, vapors): Watery eyes; impaired vision, memory and thought; secretions from the nose or rashes around the nose and mouth; headaches and nausea; appearance of intoxication; drowsiness; poor muscle control; changes in appetite; anxiety; irritability; lots of cans/aerosols in the trash.
- Hallucinogens (LSD, PCP): Dilated pupils; bizarre and irrational behavior including paranoia, aggression, hallucinations; mood swings; detachment from people; absorption with self or other objects, slurred speech; confusion.
- Heroin: Contracted pupils; no response of pupils to light; needle marks; sleeping at unusual times; sweating; vomiting; coughing, sniffling; twitching; loss of appetite.
Warning signs of teen drug abuseWhile experimenting with drugs doesn’t automatically lead to drug abuse, early use is a risk factor for developing more serious drug abuse and addiction. Risk of drug abuse also increases greatly during times of transition, such as changing schools, moving, or divorce. The challenge for parents is to distinguish between the normal, often volatile, ups and downs of the teen years and the red flags of substance abuse. These include:
- Having bloodshot eyes or dilated pupils; using eye drops to try to mask these signs.
- Skipping class; declining grades; suddenly getting into trouble at school.
- Missing money, valuables, or prescriptions.
- Acting uncharacteristically isolated, withdrawn, angry, or depressed.
- Dropping one group of friends for another; being secretive about the new peer group.
- Loss of interest in old hobbies; lying about new interests and activities.
- Demanding more privacy; locking doors; avoiding eye contact; sneaking around.